RISE OF MAGADH

 The Haryanka

The third ruling dynasty of Magadha, an empire ofancient India, which succeeded thePradyota dynasty &Barhadratha dynasty. Initially, the capital was Rajagriha.
Magadha came into prominence under the leadership of Bimbisara (542-493 BC),who belonged to the Haryanka dynasty. He strengthened his position by marriage alliances. He took three wives. His first wife was the daughter of the king of Kosala and the sister of Prasenajit. His second wife Chellana was a Lichchhavi Princess from Vaishali, and his third wife was the daughter of the chief of the Madra clan of Punjab. Marriage relations with the different princely families gave enormous diplomatic prestige and paved the way for the expansion of Magadha westward and northward.The earliest capital of Magadha was at Rajgir, which was called Girivraja at that time. It was surrounded by five hills, the openings in which were closed by stone walls on all sides. This made Rajgir impregnable. Bimbisar was succeeded by his son Ajatasatru (492-460 BC). Ajatasatru killed his father and seized the throne for himself. Throughout his reign, he pursued an aggressive policy of expansion. Ajatasatru was succeeded by Udayin (460-444 BC). His reign is important because he built the fort upon the confluence of the Ganga and Son at Patna. This was done because Patna lay in the centre of the Magadhan kingdom.

 The Sisunagas 

The Shaishunaga dynasty is believed to have been the third ruling dynasty of Magadha, an empire of ancient India. According to the Hindu Puranas, this dynasty was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha, succeeding Nagadashaka of the Haryanka dynasty.Udayin was succeeded by the dynasty of Sisunagas, who temporarily shifted the capital to Vaishali. Their greatest achievement was the destruction of the power of Avanti with its capital at Ujjain. This brought to an end the 100 years old rivalry between Magadha and Avanti.
Sisunagas, who temporarily shifted the capital to Vaishali. Their greatest achievement was the destruction of the power of Avanti with its capital at Ujjain. This brought to an end the 100 years old rivalry between Magadha and Avanti.Shishunaga founded his dynasty in 413 BCE with its capital in Rajgir and later Pataliputra.Buddhist sources indicate that he had a secondary capital at Vaishali,formerly the capital of Vajji, until it was conquered by Magadha. The Shaishunaga dynasty ruled one of the largest empires in the Indian subcontinent.Most important achievement of Shisunga was destruction of the pradyota dyanasty of Avanti.This brought to an end the hundred year old rivalry between Magadh and Avanti . From then Avanti became a part of Magadh.

 The Nandas 

The Nanda dynasty ruled in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent during the 4th century BCE, and possibly during the 5th century BCE.The Sisunagas were succeeded by the Nandas, who proved to be the most powerful rulers of Magadha. So great was their power that Alexander, who invaded Punjab at that time, did not dare to move towards the east. The Nandas added to the Magadhan power by conquering Kalinga from where they brought an image of the Jina as a victory trophy. All this took place in the reign of Mahapadma Nanda. He claimed to be ekarat, the sole sovereign who destroyed all the other ruling princes. The Nandas were the first non-kshatriya rulers. The last Nanda ruler was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya who founded the Maurya Empire.
Causes for the Rise of Magadha.
Use of elephants on a large scale in wars.Unorthodox character of Magadhan society.
Contribution of several enterprising and ambitious rulers.Advantageous geographical location with both Rajgir and Pataliputra situated at strategic locations.Abundance of natural resources, such as iron,enabled Magadhan rulers to equip with effective weapons.The alluvial soil of the Gangetic plains and sufficient rainfall were very conducive for agriculture produces.Rise of town and use of metallic money boosted trade and commerce. The princes could levy tolls and accumulate wealth to pay and maintain their army.

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