The object of education is the complete development of the child. It is necessary for the teachers should possess the knowledge of every aspects of development.

The major areas or aspects of child/human development are:

  1. Physical development
  2. Motor development
  3. Emotional development
  4. Social development
  5. Moral development
  6. Mental development
  7. Language development
  8. Personality development

1. Physical development

Physical development refers to the progressive changes in the external as well as internal body organs. It increases the physical capacity of a person to function. It is the changes in gross physical structure. It is the changes in the physical organs and systems. Knowledge of the process of physical development is required for a teacher to bring an all round balanced development of the personality of the children.

General characteristics of growth:

1)  0 – 2 years – infancy stage – rapid growth

2)  3 – 6 years – pre-childhood stage – fixation and stabilization

3)  7 – 9 years – middle childhood stage – low growth rate

4)  10 – 13 years – later childhood – fixation and stabilization

5)  14 – 15 years – early adolescence stage – rapid growth

6)  16 – 18 years – late adolescences stage – slow growth

7)  18+ years – maturity stage – growth ceases

8)  Attainment of maturity and fixation and stabilization of parts developed through infancy to adolescence.

2. Motor development

Motor development refers to the development of strength, speed and accuracy in the use of muscular parts of the body and coordination and control of muscular movements. It is closely related to physical, mental, emotional and social developments.

Principles of motor development:

1)  Cephalo–caudal trend – development from head to foot. Head become stable first and progressively foot at the end.

2)  Proximo-distal trend – centre part of the body developed and stabilized first, progress gradually towards the outer part.

3)  Bilateral to unilateral trend – both sides of the body work equally in the early stage and later either left or right dominates. Later the person becomes right side dominant or left side dominant.

4)  Large to small trend – large muscle controls develops first and small muscle controls later. Accordingly the child turn front down, crawling, kneeing, knee walking, standing.

5)  Mass to specific trend – initial mass reaction of the child gradually become adaptive and more specific reactions. Say for example initially entire hand moves and later palms, fingers etc specifically.

6)  Maximum to minimum trend – at the early stages amount of energy spend is more and the muscular movement also is great compare to the later stages. Child is involved in more physical activities in the early stages.

Educational implications:

Motor development continuous during childhood and adolescences hence much importance shall be given to physical experiences, games and activities that require speed, accuracy, precision and motor coordination. At the middle and secondary stages of education teachers need to organize varied types of activities in the forms of handicrafts, woodcrafts, stitching, sewing, typewriting, cooking, gardening and various types of outdoor programs, sports and games etc.

Activities in connection with motor development help in mental development and to generate curiosity in achievements. It also helps in social development and development of emotional intelligence. Success rate or achievement level of certain projects carry out by the child depends on the strength, speed, co-ordination and motor behavior of the child acquired through motor development.

Role of teacher:

1)  Teacher shall provide activities that require involvement of motor activities and eye-hand-co ordination.

2)  During pre-school and primary school, activities such as clay work, colouring, tearing, cutting, painting, threading, sewing etc shall to given.

3)  Play activities that helps to learn motor skills by assembling and constructing shall be given.

4)  Teachers shall make sure that the school has an environment, culture and facilities that encourage the motor development of the children.

3.Emotional development

The word emotion is derived from the Latin word ‘emovere’ which means to stir-up, agitate, excite, move etc. Emotion means a stir-up state of an organism.

According to crow and crow an emotion is an affective experience that accompanies generalized inner adjustments and mental and physiological stirred up states in the individuals and that reflects itself in his overt behavior.

Emotion is a complex physiological and biological response. It has following components:

–      Subjective feelings

–      Physiological reactions

–      Expressive behaviors

Characteristics of emotions:

1)  Emotion is associated with some biological drives or instincts. For example fear is associated with the instinct to save life or life safely.

2)  Emotion is the product of perception or the way we interpret things.

3)  Emotional experience involves psychological and physiological changes in the organism.

4)  Emotions rise fast but fall slowly.

5)  Different stimuli can arouse the same emotion.

6)  The basic ways of expressing emotions are inborn and it develops through maturation.

Positive emotions:

Pleasant emotions that are helpful and essential to the normal development of the individual are termed as positive emotions. Examples: love, joy, curiosity, happiness etc.

Negative emotions: 

These are just opposite to positive emotions and are unpleasant emotions which are harmful to the normal development of individual. Examples: anger, fear, hatred, jealousy etc.


Factors influencing emotional development: 


–      Family

–      School

–      Pear group

–      Society

–      Neighbors

2. Personal development

–      Intelligence

–      Mental Health

–      General health

–      Physical development