SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY
The school of thought means a particular way of thinking. It is a set of ideas or opinions about a matter that are shared by a group of people. In psychology also there are different ideas and opinions about the concept of mind and behavior. The important schools of psychology are the following
- Psycho Analysis
- Gestalt Psychology
- Humanist psychology.
– Wilhelm Wundt, Titchener, Weber, Fechner
– Structuralism is the study of the elements of consciousness
– It is the analysis of the structure of consciousness
– It says every event in mind leads to a corresponding event in the body.
– The mind is the sum total of the mental experiences such as thoughts, feelings, sensation, attention, imagination, knowledge etc.
– Wilhelm Wundt is the founder of structuralism.
– William James, the father of American psychology.
– Chicago functionalists: Dewey, Angell, Carr
– Columbia functionalist: Thorndike, Cattle, Wood Worth
– Functionalism is the study of the functions of mind in adapting the individual to his environment.
– It is concerned with the nature and functions of mental process.
– Functionalists believe that the mind and body are intrinsically one, the body affects the mind and the mind affects the body.
– Watson, Skinner, Pavlov, plowman and hull
– J.B Watson an American psychologists is the founder of behaviorism.
– According to behaviorism psychology is to elaborate, control and predict behavior.
– Behaviorism is the science of stimulus and response.
– It is the study of receptors, the sensory organs and effectors, the muscles and nerves.
– It is the study of overt or observable behavior.
– Behaviorism explains the association between stimulus and response.
– Environmental forces are the important determinants of behavior.
– All behaviors are learned behaviours.
– Behaviours generate as a result of interaction between individual and environment.
– Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Adler, Jung, Erikson and Hartman
– Sigmund Freud is the father of psycho analysis.
– It is the study of behavior through the analysis of unconscious mental processes.
– It utilizes the methods force association and dream analysis.
– Human mind has three parts: conscious mind, unconscious mind and pre- conscious mind.
– Structure of personality develops as a result of the development process and socialization.
– There are three aspects of personality; Id, Ego and Superego.
– Core personality of a person develops in the childhood itself.